Who are the Anunnaki?
by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S
Are the Anunnaki real? Are they aliens? Or are they part of a bigger picture?
The "Anunnaki" are the major players in a paradigm making its way into popular folklore,
via the work of the late Zecharia Sitchin, an economist by education and profession, and the author of several
best-selling books, including Genesis Revisited, that explore ancient mythology and the mysterious
megalithic ruins found around the globe. These various books also seek to demonstrate that there was in ancient
times an extraterrestrial race that genetically manipulated mankind for various reasons. The Sitchin thesis
("Sitchinism"), now embraced by numerous other writers, who have incorporated it into what is apparently a new
worldview, essentially asserts that these ancient Sumero-Babylonian gods, the Anunnaki, are aliens from the planet
Nibiru (Sitchin's "12th Planet"), which passes by the earth every 3,500 years or so, at which time they planet-hop
to the earth and create mischief.
Although the idea of the ancient gods being aliens may seem novel, the tendency to make the gods
of old into "real people" or "flesh and blood" is not at all new, dating to before the time of the Greek
historian Herodotus (5th c. BCE) and developed by the Greek philosopher Euhemeros or Evemeras (c. 300 BCE).
This tendency is called, in fact, "euhemerism" or "evemerism," which claims that the numerous gods of various
cultures were not "mythical" but were in reality kings, queens, warriors and assorted heroes whose lives were
turned into fairytales with the addition of miraculous details to their biographies. The current Anunnaki
thesis is a modern version of evemerism, although it seeks to explain the miracles as not fabulous "additions"
to the tales but genuine attributes of advanced extraterrestrials.
Unfortunately for those who would wish to see concrete evidence of such exciting notions as
extraterrestrial visitation in Earth's remote past, the Anunnaki will not be the place to look, as the true nature
of these various gods and goddesses was already known long before the era of modern revisionism.
Ancient Astronaut Theory
The tireless researcher Charles Fort was widely known as the chronicler of what are now called
"Forteana," bizarre anomalies and mysteries that throw the current perception of reality on its ear,
whether it be religious or scientific. In an attempt to explain these anomalies, which include weird
stories or "myths" and enormous, astonishing ruins worldwide, a number of people, including Swiss writer Erich von Daniken and Zecharia Sitchin, have created the
"ancient astronaut theory," which dictates that alien visitors have been influencing human life for thousands
if not millions of years, even to the point of genetic manipulation. von Daniken, it should be recalled, was
one of the first moderns to put forth the ancient astronaut theory and was widely ridiculed and vilified for
his observations. Because of Sitchin's apparent scholastic training, he becomes more credible for many, even
though he is one of those renegades not scholastically trained in his field. Furthermore, it should be noted
that neither man came up with the ancient astronaut theory, which was largely developed by a German
occultic society, for one, during the 19th century.
Supporters ("Sitchinites") claim that Sitchin is one of the few people who read the Sumerian
language and that because he can read Sumerian, he must be interpreting the data properly. The assertion that he is
one of the few scholars of Sumerian is not true. Moreover, the idea that someone may be able to read a language and
therefore can interpret its data properly is a specious argument, because the one certainly does not guarantee the
other. Years before Sitchin, biblical and Dead Sea scrolls scholar John Allegro studied Sumerian intimately and
came to very different conclusions: To wit, that many of the words revolved around sex and drugs. Hence, it is not
the "mere" ability to read the Sumerian that will produce an accurate rendering of it.
Like so many other paradigms that make it into popular culture, the alien astronaut theory has
been agenda-driven. In fact, it seems that the most recent attempt may be prompted by the same type of
motivation that produced the Bible, a chronicle largely consisting of the plagiarized myths of other cultures
that were reconstituted as "humans" of a particular ethnicity. It appears that the Anunnaki thesis has
now led to the conclusion that, while the Bible is not infallible, its god Yahweh is valid and its various
characters are the superhuman alien-hybrid progenitors of "the chosen."
In reality, there was no reason to recreate the ancient gods as aliens or humans, because
the ancients themselves were quite clear about what it was exactly they were worshipping and fancifully describing
in epic poetry. The speculation is not needed, as, for example, the Sumero-Babylonians themselves said that the
gods were the planets, not people, and that their stories were myths representing personifications of
It is believed that by "dismissing" the myths of the ancients as myths, we are somehow
robbing them of their "history." This claim is ludicrous, as it is those who insist that there are no
myths who are actually defaming the ancients. It seems as if everyone has already forgotten the work of the
learned and esteemed mythologist Joseph Campbell. Campbell knew that major biblical tales, such as that of
Moses and the Exodus, were mythical. In his book Occidental Mythology, following a discussion of the Bible, Campbell turns to the "Gods
and Heroes of the European West," and says, with apparent resentment:
"Fortunately, it will not be necessary to argue that Greek, Celtic or Germanic myths were
mythological. The peoples themselves knew they were myths, and the European scholars discussing them
have not been overborne by the idea of something uniquely holy about their topic."
Perhaps mythology is simply not as exciting as the UFOlogical paradigm, whereby ancient
astronauts were buzzing all over the place, being worshipped for their extraordinary capacities. However, the
desire to see such a "history" often seems to be coming from exposure as a youth to comic books and sci-fi
movies—and even the History Channel these days, featuring "Ancient Aliens" shows!
Astrotheology of the Ancients
The ancients were not the dark and dumb rabble commonly portrayed. They were, in fact, highly
advanced. As such, they developed over a period of many thousands of years a complex astronomical/ astrological
system that incorporated the movements and qualities of numerous celestial bodies, which could be called the
"celestial mythos." The celestial mythos is found around the globe in astonishing uniformity. In fact, it served as
the manner by which life on Earth was ordered, as it contained information crucial to life, such as the
movements and interrelationship of the sun and moon. Without the mythos, no people would have been able to
become sea-faring, and planting and harvesting would have been difficult. And the mythos needed no alien
intervention to be developed by humans, nor did it need moderns to come along and reinterpret it contrary to
what its creators intended.
For example, the Anunnaki play a part in the mythos, but they are not "people," human or
otherwise. The Anunnaki, in general, represent the seven "nether spheres" and guardians of the seven "gates"
through which the "sun of God" passes into the netherworld or darkness. They are also the "tutelary spirits of the
earth." So, immediately we encounter a problem which reveals that what Sitchin is putting forth is not what the
ancients themselves said of the traditions they themselves developed. Like so many before him, Sitchin also wants to make the main character of the
celestial mythos, the sun, into a person. Actually, he wants to make it into several extraterrestrials. These
various gods found around the globe, such as Apollo, Osiris, Horus, Krishna, Hercules, Jesus and Quetzalcoatl,
are not people or aliens but personifications of the solar hero, as was stated by the peoples who created
them. The ancients were not so dumb that they mistook planets for people, even though they personified
those planets and, where the knowledge or gnosis of the mythos was lost, they hoped for "the
incarnation," or the carnalization or appearance of a "god." There is no need to recreate the wheel here by
speculating upon what the ancients "really" meant.
The Anunnaki and Assorted Other Characters
Contrary to popular belief, the Sumerian culture has been known for centuries and did not appear
suddenly out of nowhere with the discovery of the cuneiform tablets found at Ur, capitol of Sumeria, for example.
If anything, the tablets and others verified what we already knew about Sumeria from its inheritors, the Akkadians
and Assyro-Babylonians. The Sumerians were not a lost civilization, except that their older physical remains such
as at Ur had not been remembered through the ages but were rediscovered only in the mid-19th century. Their
mythology and culture were fairly well preserved in the succeeding civilizations: For instance, some 300,000
tablets of the Babylonians have been found thus far, which include much commentary on their gods.
The main characters in the Sumero-Babylonian religion/mythology are Enlil/Ellil, Utu/Shamash,
Marduk/Merodach, Gilgamesh, Nanna/Sin, Inanna/Ishtar, Ea/Enki and Dumuzi/Tammuz. A number of these deities are in
the class called "Anunnaki" and/or "Igigi." The Anunnaki are numbered variously: 7, 50 and 900.
None of these characters is a historical person, as, again, the Sumero-Babylonians correctly
identified their own gods as being the "planets," which, of course, included the sun and the moon to the ancients.
Says the Catholic Encyclopedia regarding Babel:
"The storied tower of Birs Nimrud counts seven of these quadrangular platforms painted in
seven colors, black, white, yellow, blue, scarlet, silver and gold, and in the same order sacred to the
stellar gods, Adar (Saturn), Ishtar (Venus), Merodach (Jupiter), Nebo (Mercury), Nergal (Mars), Sin (the
Moon), Shamash (the Sun)."
The "king of the Anunnaki," Enlil is the storm/wind god, also essentially the same as the later
Bel or Baal, the Canaanite sun god/solar hero. Enlil and Ninlil give birth to the moon god Nanna, "a major astral
deity of the Sumerians," who was called "Sin" in Babylonian. Sin is the same moon god encamped at Mt. Sinai, as
well as worshipped at Ur and Harran, where purportedly lived the mythical Abraham, progenitor of the Hebrews, who "borrowed" many of their gods (Elohim) from
Mesopotamia (and Canaan, Egypt, etc.). Obviously, neither the moon nor "his parents" are real persons/aliens;
nor are the rest. Regarding Enlil/Bel, the Encyclopedia Britannica says:
"(Akkadian), Sumerian Enlil, Mesopotamian god of the atmosphere and a
member of the triad of gods completed by Anu (Sumerian An) and Ea (Enki). Enlil meant 'Lord Wind'- both the
hurricane and the gentle winds of spring were thought of as the breath issuing from his mouth, and eventually
as his word or command [cf. Christian "logos" (John 1:1)]. He was sometimes called Lord of the Air.
"Although An was the highest god in the Sumerian pantheon, Enlil had a more important role:
he embodied energy and force but not authority. Enlil's cult centre was Nippur. Enlil was also the god of
agriculture: the Myth of the Creation of the Hoe describes how he separated heaven and earth to make room for
seeds to grow. He then invented the hoe and broke the hard crust of earth; men sprang forth from the hole.
Another myth relates Enlil's rape of his consort Ninlil (Akkadian Belit), a grain goddess, and his subsequent
banishment to the underworld. This myth reflects the agricultural cycle of fertilization, ripening and winter
"The name of his Akkadian counterpart, Bel, is derived from the Semitic word baal,
or "lord." Bel had all the attributes of Enlil, and his status and cult were much the same. Bel,
however, gradually came to be thought of as the god of order and destiny. In Greek writings references to Bel
indicate this Babylonian deity and not the Syrian god of Palmyra of the same name."
Although there were many Baalim, the singular Baal apparently came to represent the sun in the
age of Taurus (c. 4500-2400 BCE), whence, it is said, comes the word "bull."
Sin and Shamash
The moon god Sin is the father of Shamash, the Babylonian sun god, who was worshipped by the
Israelites. Indeed, "sun" in Hebrew is "shamash." The sun god Shamash was called the "sublime judge of the
The "commander of the Anunnaki" and son of Enki/Ea, the god of "the waters" (cf. Gen. 1:1), was
Marduk, or Merodach, who is apparently the Mordecai of the biblical book of Esther (Ishtar). Also called a "king of
the Igigi," Marduk was the supreme Babylonian god and often represented Jupiter, although as "Bel-Marduk" he
incorporated aspects of the sun god as well and was considered as such at a late period in his worship.
One of Marduk's 50 names was "Nibiru" or "Nebiru," in which Robert Temple in The Sirius
Mystery sees the Egyptian term "Neb-Heru," meaning "Lord of the sun." The god
Horus or "Heru" is indeed largely a sun god, depicted as a hawk with wings outstretched and the solar orb on his head.
Rather than representing the "12th planet," the description of Nibiru in the Enuma Elish does
indeed seem to depict the personification of the sun and its "exploits." "Nebo" was the Babylonian version of "Moses," actually a solar hero, and
Nibiru, in fact, is represented by a winged disc, a common motif depicting the sun. According to the
consensus of astronomers worldwide, both amateur and professional, there is no evidence for the 12th
planet/Nibiru as Sitchin presents it. (In other words, "Planet X" is not a known, astronomical
The demigod/hero Gilgamesh is depicted as wrestling the "celestial bull," said
to represent the sign of the age of Taurus and is similar to the motif of the Perso-Roman sun god Mithra
slaying the bull. In mourning the death of Enki, Gilgamesh "goes to the mountains of Mashu and passes by the
guardian scorpion-demons into the darkness." Mt. Mashu was where "every evening the sun sought repose." Per
Robert Temple, "Mashu" may be derived from an Egyptian term meaning, "Behold, the sun." Like "Moses,"
derived from mashah in Hebrew (Strong's h3871), "Mashu" is apparently related to "Shamash" and
represents the sun. The "scorpion-demons" or scorpion-men are evidently the stars in the constellation of
Scorpio, in the darkness of the night sky. Gilgamesh has also been associated with the Egyptian sun god
Osiris, as has the biblical "Nimrod" or "Nemrod." The Catholic Encyclopedia (CE) states:
"Gilgamesh, whom mythology transformed into a Babylonian Hercules [the Greek solar hero],
whose fortunes are described in the Gilgamesh-epos, would then be the person designated by the Biblical Nemrod.
Others again see in Nemrod an intentional corruption of Amarudu, the Akkadian for Marduk, whom the Babylonians
worshiped as the great God..." ("Babylonia")
One of the "seven who decreed the fates," Inanna/Ishtar was the Goddess, alternately Venus, the moon, the constellation of Virgo, the earth, etc. Ishtar was
"Astarte" in Phoenicia, and, as Frazer says in The Worship of Nature, "Her Phoenician worshippers
identified her with the Moon..." Like the Greek god of the underworld, Hades, who allowed his beloved
Persephone to return to the surface in order to create spring, Inanna was the creator of seasons, as she is
depicted permitting the solar-fertility god Dumuzi/Tammuz to remain in the underworld for only six months
out of the year.
One of the lesser Anunnaki, the "shepherd god" Tammuz was worshipped also in Jerusalem, per the
book of Ezekiel (8:14). As the Babylonian records state concerning their "garden of Eden" or "Edina," of Eridu: "a
dark vine grew; it was made a glorious place, planted beside the abyss. In the glorious house, which is like a
forest, its shadow extends; no man enters its midst. In its interior is the Sun-god
Tammuz. Between the mouths of the rivers, which are on both sides." (CE "Babylonia")
The Netherworld Seven
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Anunnaki appear thus:
"The Flood: Nergal pull down the dams of the nether waters, Ninurta the war lord threw down
the dykes, and the SEVEN judges of hell, THE ANUNNAKI, raised their torches lighting the land with their vivid
The "nether waters" represent the heavens, and the Anunnaki were called "the fates" and
light-bearers of the night sky. They were the "seven judges of hell" and "seven nether spheres," as Barbara G.
Walker relates in her entry on Mary Magdalene (The Woman's Encyclopedia, 614):
"The seven 'devils' exorcised from Mary Magdalene seem to have been the seven Maskim, or
Anunnaki, Sumero-Akkadian spirits of the seven nether spheres, born of the goddess Mari. Their multiple birth
was represented in her sacred dramas, which may account for their alleged emergence from Mary Magdalene. An
Akkadian tablet said of them, 'They are seven! In the depths of the ocean, they are seven! In the brilliance of
the heavens, they are seven! They proceed from the ocean depths [Maria] from the hidden retreat!"
Walker also relates, in The Woman's Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects, 13:
"A generally accepted view of the universe in antiquity was the doctrine of the planetary
spheres, conceived as great crystal domes or inverted bowls nested inside one another over the earth, turning
independently of one another at various rates, and emitting the 'music of the spheres' with their motions. The
theory was evolved to explain the apparently erratic movement of planets against the background of the fixed
stars. Reading from the innermost sphere outward, arranging them according to the days of the week,
they were the spheres of the moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, and the sun. Outermost was
the eight sphere, the Empyrean, the home of fixed spheres and the ultimate God: the highest heaven.
"As a corollary to this theory, it was also assumed that there were seven nether spheres
descending under the earth: the 'seven hells' to which Dumuzi and Inanna (or Tammuz and Ishtar) journeyed;
whose seven gates were guarded by the seven Anunnaki or Maskim, the nether counterparts of the planetary
spirits. According to an Akkadian magic tablet, 'They proceed from the ocean depths, from the hidden retreat.'
From the ancient idea of the seven nether spheres, Dante took his vision of the descending circles of
"Early Christians taught that each human soul descends from heaven, picking up one of the
seven deadly sins from each planetary sphere along the way: lust from Venus, anger from Mars, and so on. After
death, the soul returned to the highest heaven, shedding the same sins one by one, while passing the
'innkeeper' of the spheres - providing, of course, that the soul was Christianized and therefore properly
When we study what the ancients said about them, we discover that the Anunnaki, et al., are part
of the celestial mythos, not "aliens." Here the Anunnaki are the "seven nether spheres" or mirror images
of the seven "planets." These seven judges are a common mythical motif, also found in Slavic/Serbian mythology, for
example, where they are clearly identified as the planets:
"Among the Serbs the Sun was a young and handsome king. He lived in a kingdom of light and
sat on a throne of gold and purple. At his side stood two beautiful virgins, Aurora of the Morning and Aurora
of the Evening, seven judges (the planets) and seven 'messengers' who flew across the universe in the guise of
'stars with tails' (comets). Also present was the Sun's 'bald uncle, old Myesyats' (or the moon)." New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 284
As we can see, the reality of this issue is much more colorful and luminous than a group of
bizarre aliens terrorizing cavemen. This information is what the ancients themselves wrote. They did not write,
"And so the Anunnaki were sky people from another planet who landed here and mated with humans, etc." In fact,
"Anunnaki" is a generic term for gods, especially secondary gods, and means "gods of heaven and earth,"
not "those who from heaven to earth came." "An" or "Anu" means "sky" and represents the name of the "god
of heaven," while "Ki" means "earth" and is the name of the earth goddess.
The Host of Heaven and Sons of God
As noted, the Anunnaki were numbered 900 as well, some of whom apparently represented the stars,
i.e., the zodiac, or "heavenly host," as worshipped by the Canaanites and Hebrews. In this regard, Benson writes in
The History of God From Abraham to Moses:
"The Anunnaki were analogous to the 'host of heaven' of the Hebrews. Marduk allotted
portions to the Anunnaki: 'To the Anunnaki of heaven and earth [Marduk] had allotted their portions.' Likewise,
the Canaanite-Hebrew god El Elyon allotted portions to his sons: 'When the Most High [Heb. Elyon] gave to the
nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he fixed the bounds of the peoples according to
the number of the sons of God. For the LORDs portion is his people, Jacob [Israel] his allotted heritage.'
(Deuteronomy 32:8-9 RSV) These 'sons of God' in the following verse are also called the 'host of heaven,' to
whom God divided to all the nations: 'And lest you lift up your eyes to heaven, and when you see...all the host
of heaven...which the LORD your God has divided to all nations under the whole heaven.' (Deuteronomy 4:19 KJV)
These gods were secondary gods: 'For the LORD your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords...' (Deuteronomy 10:17
KJV) 'O give thanks to the God of gods...' (Psalm 136:2 KJV)"
Also, the biblical god Yahweh is not a person, alien or otherwise. "He" too is in large
part a solar myth. Regarding Yahweh, the Catholic Encyclopedia says:
"It seems likely that the name of Ea, or Ya, or Aa, the oldest god of the Babylonian
Pantheon, is connected with the name Jahve, Jahu, or Ja, of the Old Testament."
The Babylonian "Ea" is equivalent to Enlil, whom, as we have seen, is a sun god.
(The following regarding Yahweh is an excerpt from The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold .)
Prior to being labeled Yahweh, the Israelite god was called "Baal." signifying the sun in the Age
of Taurus. When the sun passed into Aries, "the Lord's" name was changed to the Egyptian Iao, which became
YHWH, IEUE, Yahweh, Jahweh, Jehovah and Jah. This ancient name "IAO/Iao" represents the totality of "God," as
the "I" symbolizes unity, the "a" is the "alpha" or beginning, while the "o" is the "omega" or end.
In fact, the name Yahweh, Iao or any number of variants thereof can be found in several
"In Phoenicia the Sun was known as Adonis...identical with Iao, or, according to the Chinese
faith, Yao (Jehovah), the Sun, who makes his appearance in the world 'at midnight of the twenty-fourth day of
the twelfth month.'"
YHWH/IEUE was additionally the Egyptian sun god Ra:
"Ra was the father in heaven, who has the title of 'Huhi' the eternal, from which the
Hebrews derived the name 'Ihuh.'"
Thus, the tetragrammaton or sacred name of God IAO/IEUE/YHWH is very old, pre-Israelite, and can
be etymologically linked to numerous gods, even to "Jesus," or "Yahushua," whose name means "salvation" or
Yahweh had yet another aspect to "his" persona, as at some early stage the "sacred
tetragrammaton" of "God" was bi-gendered. As Walker states:
"Jewish mystical tradition viewed the original Jehovah as an androgyne, his/her name
compounded as Jah (jod) and the pre-Hebraic name of Eve, Havah or Hawah, rendered he-vau-he- in Hebrew letters.
The four letters together made the sacred tetragrammaton, YHWH, the secret name of God.... The Bible contains
many plagiarized excerpts from earlier hymns and prayers to Ishtar and other Goddess figures, with the name of
Yahweh substituted for that of the female deity."
Thus, even Yahweh was at one time plural, but "he" eventually became an all-male, sky god. This
singular Yahweh was a warrior god, representing the sun in Aries, which is ruled by the warlike Mars and symbolized
by the Ram-the same symbolic ram "caught in a thicket" near Abraham and used by him as a replacement sacrifice for
his son Isaac. This warrior god Yahweh was not only Jealous but Zealous, as his name is rendered in Young's Literal
"...for ye do not bow yourselves to another god-for Jehovah, whose name [is] Zealous, is a
zealous God." (Exodus 34:14)
In fact, the same word in Hebrew is used for both jealous and zealous, although it is
transliterated differently, "qanna" being jealous and "qana," zealous. As El Elyon was but one of the Canaanite
Elohim, the Most High God, so was "Yahweh," as "El Qanna," the Jealous/Zealous God, which is why in the Old
Testament he keeps sticking his nose in and shouting at everyone. The title "Jealous/Zealous" is also appropriate
for a god represented by a volcano, as was Yahweh by the smoky and fiery Mt. Sinai. Hence, Yahweh's followers
themselves were intolerant and hotheaded zealots.
There was in reality never any need for sci-fi explanation or speculation as to these
various figures and their stories. Nor was there a need to take the Bible as a literal, historical document.
Indeed, the behind-the-scenes elite have known the allegorical, mythical and astrological nature of the Bible and
its characters from the beginning.
It is evident that the ancients recording these myths were in fact often smarter than they are
given credit for by modern critics and researchers. They knew the difference between planets and people/aliens. The
architecture, art, writings and traditions of these various ancient cultures, including Sumero-Babylon, India,
Egypt, Chaldea, Phoenicia, Canaan, etc., show an advanced degree of civilization surpassing that which
followed it. Such later degradation is particularly true when it comes to biblical peoples. The Bible, in
fact, represents a dumbed-down version of the mythology of the aforementioned cultures. In reality, in terms
of cosmic knowledge, in many important ways modern man has devolved. One of the major problems is the
compulsive and irrational historicization and vulgarization of the planetary bodies and of the celestial
mythos and ritual, a body of knowledge and wisdom concerning the cosmos and specifically the solar system,
which filled the ancients with awe and reverence. This mythos and ritual is found worldwide, reflecting a
global culture in ancient times. This body of knowledge is discovered in stone and story all over the
world, reflected in the mysterious megalithic ruins.
To reduce this glory to a band of aliens and/or humans is a serious mistake, as it robs the
ancients of intelligence and wisdom, among other things, including the quality of humanity itself. Furthermore,
part of the brainwashing to get people to accept the story of Jesus Christ, for example—which is
significantly the story of the sun—was to make "myths" appear to be foolish stories
with no basis in reality. This mental programming or "meme" has been displayed abundantly, but the fact is that
myths are not mere fantasies and hallucinations. They are stories designed to pass along vital information
from generation to generation. It is easier to remember the "exploits" of the sun, moon and stars, for example,
when they are personified and told in a fun story than when presented in a dry dissertation. It is only when the
knowledge, or gnosis, has been lost that humans start believing these entities to be real people —and the gnosis
was very effectively driven underground by organized religion, such that it was lost to the masses, who now must
piece it together, often coming up with erroneous and inaccurate interpretations with occasional hits now and
Astrotheology of the Ancients
Are Aliens and UFOs Real?
The Myth of a 12th Planet: A Brief Analysis of Cylinder Seal VA 243
AN ASTRONOMER'S ANALYSIS OF THE AKKADIAN SEAL