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The Christ Myth Articles

The following is a collection of articles by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S, some excerpted from her various books, while others are original to the internet or have been published in other books and periodicals.

  • In Apollo, we have a pre-Christian son of God who may have been titled "Chrēstos" for his role as God of Oracles, as well as "IE," part of an epithet discovered on tombstones and other artifacts including his temple at Delphi. Hence, the son of God Apollo - a sun god - could be said to be "IE the Chrēst," possibly centuries before the common era.
    apollo-chrest.html
  • Who are these famous men of old? Why are their lives so similar?
    apollonius.html
  • The further one regresses in time, the more obvious it becomes that the principal and singular religious worship found globally has revolved around nature.
    astrotheology.html
  • In many mythicist writings, the ancient Phrygo-Roman god Attis is depicted as having been born of a virgin mother on December 25th, being killed and resurrecting afterwards. Here we shall examine the evidence for these contentions, which parallel the gospel story and Christian tradition concerning Jesus Christ.
    attis.html
  • Is Kersey Graves guilty of fabrication in his seminal work "The World's 16 Crucified Saviors?" To my knowledge no one of the past 130 years or so since Kersey Graves wrote The World's 16 Crucified Saviors has ever looked as in depth as I have into the sources of the many assertions made by Graves.
    beddru.html
  • The "James ossuary" or bone-box is no proof that Jesus Christ existed. It is an obvious forgery.
    ossuary.htm
  • The ancient monogram combination of the Greek letters χρ or "chi-rho" denoted a variety of terms, including "gold" (χρυσός), "anointed" (χριστός) and "good" (χρηστός). Thus, in determining the usage of the word χρηστός chrestos we need to factor in studies of the chi-rho, an abbreviation employed on coins, shields and elsewhere for centuries prior to the common era.
    chi-rho-chrestos.html
  • In our analysis of the word chresto or chrestos, we discover that members of brotherhoods, priesthoods and religious schools such as priests and prophets were called chrestes in Greek antiquity, as were soothsayers and those who "give or expound oracles" or consult with gods (see image at right).
    chrestes-oracle.html
  • About 90 % of the collected manuscripts use an e, and the most common, earliest and most trustworthy spelling is indeed Chresto, which is an intelligible Latin word (the ablative of the proper name Chrestus). Accordingly, I, in agreement with the modern editions of De Vita Caesarum, conclude that the original Suetonian spelling of the word in fact was Chresto.
    suetoniusmanuscripts.html
  • In 2008, an evidently pre-Christian cup or bowl was found at Alexandria, Egypt, with chrestou, the genitive form of the Greek word chrestos, inscribed on it. Naturally, there is a desire to push this artifact into the early first century and claim it has something to do with Christianity. However, this epithet "the Good" or chrestos was already known centuries before Christ's purported existence, and this bowl could predate the common era by decades.
    chrestos-magical-bowl.html
  • A page of errors and more noticeable typos found in the bestselling book 'The Christ Conspiracy.' This page does not correct the writing style or grammar, such as misplaced periods, errant commas or wordiness found in the book 'The Christ Conspiracy,' which was released in September 1999. Rather, it serves to provide a list of typos and errors that affect the accuracy of the text.
    christconerrata.htm
  • Acharya is relentless – and her research, nothing less than exhaustive – as point by point she blows the figurative fish out of the water, leaving it to flop pathetically about, faced with the overwhelming evidence she has uncovered.
    excludedmiddle.htm
  • Drawing together an amazing amount of research, Acharya S - a classically trained archaeologist and historian - utterly demolishes the facade of Christianity, showing that it is 100 percent mythology.
    kick.htm
  • Is Jesus the 'reason for the season?' Christmas is the winter solstice celebration, not the birthday of the Son of God.
    christmas.htm
  • Did Jesus Christ exist? Or is he a myth, the same as so many ancient gods?
    christmyth.htm
  • What is the truth behind the Christ myth? Is it a "new fad?" "This thinking," i.e, that Jesus Christ is a mythical character, is not at all a "new fad."
    kimball.htm
  • Did the American Founding Fathers study the case for Jesus Christ being a mythical figure? There is much evidence that Washington and Jefferson, among other famous and important figures of the day, were influenced by well-known French mythographers and "Jesus mythicists," such as Dupuis and Volney.
    washington-jefferson-mythicists.html
  • The Greek god Dionysus has been depicted as having been born of a virgin mother on December 25th; performing miracles such as changing water into wine; being surrounded by or one of 12 figures; bearing epithets such as "Only Begotten Son" and "Savior"; dying; resurrecting after three days and ascending into heavens.
    dionysus.html
  • Why did the religion of Mithraism so bother the early Christians that they were compelled to write against it? The early fathers of the Christian church discussed Mithraism's similarities to Christianity, unfavorably and with the intent to make it appear as if the prescient devil "aped" the coming Christ, based on interpretations of so-called "messianic prophecies" in the Old Testament. In other words, the Church fathers essentially admitted that these similarities, parallels and correspondences between the religion and biography of the Perso-Roman god Mithra and the Jewish messiah Jesus existed before Christ supposedly lived, and that the Christian savior and religion were therefore unoriginal and not unique.
    mithraism.html
  • What is the meaning of Easter? Is it the time when Christ was crucified and resurrected? Or is it an ancient Pagan holiday? Contrary to popular belief, Easter does not represent the 'historical' crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In reality, the gospel tale reflects the annual 'crossification' of the sun through the vernal equinox (Spring), at which time the sun is 'resurrected,' as the day begins to become longer than the night.
    easter.htm
  • When were the gospels written? With their absence in Justin Martyr's works, we remain with the dating of the gospels to the last quarter of the second century.
    historicaljc.htm
  • Jesus Christ is not the only god supposedly born of a virgin on December 25th. So too was Horus of Egypt. The mythical motif of the sun god born at the winter solstice of a virgin precedes the common era by many centuries. As demonstrated here, its presence in the myths of Sokar, a form of both Osiris and Horus, dates back over 3,000 years. The same motif was celebrated as applied to Aion, Horus and other virgin-born solar deities around the globe for millennia.
    horus.html
  • Another nation in which the native sun god was overthrown by the Jewish Son of God was Great Britain, where the ancient Druidism was likewise appropriated by the later Christianity.
    christ-great-britain.html
  • Is Jesus Christ truly a unique, divine revelation? Or is he one of many "Christs" and "Chrēsts" in antiquity? As "Jesus the Good" was called "Chrēstos," so too was the Egyptian goddess Isis.
    isis-the-chrest.html
  • Did Jesus Christ go to India and elsewhere? Was Jesus in Glastonbury, England?
    jesus_in_india.htm
  • A brief paragraph in "Antiquities of the Jews" by the Jewish historian Josephus (37-100 CE) is cited as proof of the existence of Jesus Christ. Is it really? Or is it a forgery?
    josephus.htm
  • How old is Christian doctrine? What parts of Christianity come from Paganism? The following is an excellent encapsulation of "Pagan" myths and rituals that preceded Christianity, representing doctrines utilized in its creation. The author is Charles Waite, from his book 'History of the Christian Religion to the Year Two Hundred,' which was published in 1900 and remains an outstanding resource for scholars and aficionados.
    waite.htm
  • The dying and resurrected savior god Osiris was worshipped thousands of years before Christ. Is it Osiris's story in the New Testament? In the myth of Osiris is the great teaching god with the twelve disciples who dies and resurrects, millennia before the Christian era. The evidence abundantly points to Jesus Christ as a nearly identical, mythical remake of the highly popular Osiris, whose story was known by millions of pilgrims for thousands of years in precisely the same areas in which the Christian myth arose.
    osiris.htm
  • 'The Jesus Puzzle' provides a vital aspect in the Mythicist School dating back over 200 years. It is a constant source of amazement to "freethinkers," rationalists and assorted (other) scholars and scientists that it is considered virtuous to blindly believe in the words of a man or a group of men concerning the matters of "faith" and "religion," when, if religion were to have any meaning at all, it would be about reality, honesty and integrity.
    jesuspuzzle.htm
  • Mithra, the Light of the World, is an ancient sun god identified with Sol Invictus, who was born on December 25th. Mithra resembled Jesus Christ in many ways, including having a virgin birth, 12 companions and an ascension into heaven, as well as other doctrinal and ritual correspondences such as baptism and the eucharist.
    mithra.htm
  • Who was Jesus Christ? Is the Bible true? Watch this video!
    naked.htm
  • Neith never engaged in any kind of sexual union; that is, she was eternally a virgin. Yet, as the primordial Being, she was also generative. Thus, in Neith we have one of the earliest appearances of the archetype of the Virgin Mother, the Holy Parthenos, in her original, unadulterated form.
    neith.html
  • Is Noah's Ark a true story? Was there a global flood? For millennia, countless people have been taught that there was a real man named Noah who somehow piled two (or seven, depending on which scripture in the "infallible Word of God" one reads) of every animal on the planet into an ark and with his family survived an enormous global flood. Obviously, to thinkers worldwide this story is logically to be considered an impossible fable, not history.
    noah.htm
  • Shocking as it may seem to the general populace, the most enduring and profound controversy in this subject is whether or not a person named Jesus Christ ever really existed.
    origins.htm
  • Like those of the Jewish writer Josephus, the works of the ancient historians Pliny, Suetonius and Tacitus do NOT provide proof that Jesus Christ ever existed as a "historical" character. Regarding these "references," if they were genuine they would no more prove the existence of Jesus Christ than do writings about other gods prove THEIR existence.
    pliny.htm
  • The concepts of God and religion have varied greatly over the millennia, in the sense that they have been developed within cultural contexts, with odd details and interpretations based chiefly on race, gender, language and environment.
    introduction.htm
  • Australian historian Dr. Chris Forbes is a senior lecturer in Ancient History and deputy chairman of the Society for the Study of Early Christianity, as well as a member of the Society for Biblical Literature and of the Synod of the Diocese of Sydney. Dr. Forbes's criticisms of the first/religion part of the internet documentary "Zeitgeist" ("ZG1.1") have been widely circulated. However, Forbes is not an Egyptologist, classicist or mythologist, and his comments show a lack of knowledge in the relevant fields addressed in ZG1.1.
  • Is the Shroud of Turin genuine? Or is it a forgery in a long line of 'pious frauds?' How was it made?
    shroud.htm
  • Does the Roman historian refer to the historical Jesus of Nazareth, or is the famous passage concerning "Chresto" or "Chrestus" about another individual altogether?
    suetoniuschresto.html
  • Who is the virgin-born hero found in legends around the world? Re about the Suns of God.
    sun-lore.html
  • 'Suns of God' is truly a magnificent volume. Its significance is undeniable. It is nothing less than a window into our very future.
    suns_of_god_review.html
  • The very learned Acharya S has spoken again. In a sequel to her wide-ranging The Christ Conspiracy, she has redoubled her efforts to show the solar - that is, the astro-theological - basis of all religions and mythologies, and to demonstrate that the great savior figures of the world's religions are late historicizations of the sacred sun myths. At the outset, let me make clear that I regard Acharya ("the Teacher," as she was dubbed by friends and students) as a colleague and fellow-laborer in the field of Christ-Myth scholarship.
    price-sog-review.html
  • Whatever one takes away from "Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity" by Dr. Marguerite Rigoglioso, the book certainly is a tour de force. Phrases like "parthenogenetic creator deity" and "virgin creatrix" readily convey the concept of a virgin mother from remotest times, like a splash of cold water waking up our long dormant female spiritual traditions. There can be no doubt that the virgin-mother concept did not originate with Christianity and that the idea of the Virgin Mary as a historical personage appears unsupportable from this and much more evidence.
    virgin-mother-goddesses.html
  • Was the Indian god Krishna's mother a virgin? Were there other gods and men born of virgins? A recurring theme in ancient religion revolves around the manner of the sun god's birth, as well as the chastity of his mother. In a number of instances the sun god is perceived as being born of the inviolable dawn, the virgin moon or earth, or the constellation of Virgo.
    virgin.htm
  • Was the Hindu Savior God Krishna depicted as crucified? Were any other gods crucified?
    kcrucified.htm
  • Was the first Christmas truly the birth of Jesus Christ on December 25th? Or is this holiday much older than that, adopted into Christianity from pre-Christian cultures whose traditions dated back hundreds to thousands of years before the common era?
    first-christmas.html
  • Is Buddhism atheistic? What is the relationship between Buddhism and Christianity? Many of the numerous lives of Buddha were spent as divine beings; yet, like so many religions that do not subscribe to the typical theology of other cultures, it is claimed of Buddhism that it is "atheistic." This contention was also laid upon early Christianity because that faith likewise did not acknowledge the reigning deities.
    lifeofbuddha.htm
  • Was Mary Magdalene a 'common prostitute?' Was she the wife of Jesus Christ and the mother of his children?
    mary-magdalene.html
  • Who was the Virgin Mary? Was she the Mother of God? As is the case with Jesus Christ himself, the godman's parents, Joseph and Mary, never appear in the contemporary historical record of the time they allegedly existed. Nor are they mentioned in non-gospel Christian writings earlier than the purported time of Church father Ignatius (d. 107 CE). Oddly enough, the Islamic sacred text, the Koran, places Jesus and Mary in the same era as Moses, or the 13th century BCE
    mary.html
  • The ZEITGEIST Sourcebook is a 100-page ebook citing primary sources and the works of highly credentialed authorities backing up the contentions found in the religion part of the first ZEITGEIST film. This free PDF file also contains many illustrations.
  • La polémique la plus profonde et la plus durable est de savoir si un individu appelé Jésus-Christ a réellement existé.
    francais.htm
  • ¿Existió Jesús Cristo?
    espanol.htm

Stellar House Articles

Astrotheology of the Ancients
The further one regresses in time, the more obvious it becomes that the principal and singular religious worship found globally has revolved around nature.
astrotheology.html

Christ Conspiracy in the News!
On Thursday, July 31, 2008, an article appeared in the newspaper South Shields, England, called The Shields Gazette that highlighted the book The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold by Acharya S also known as D.M. Murdock.
shieldgazette.html

Over a century ago, renowned British Egyptologist Sir Dr. E.A. Wallis Budge (1857-1934), a Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum, as well as a confessed Christian, remarked that a study tracing the "influence of ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and mythology on Christianity" would "fill a comparatively large volume." Since Dr. Budge's time, for a variety of reasons, including the seemingly irreconcilable academic gap between historians and theologians, no one has taken up the call to produce such a volume—until now.
ciepreface.html

David Mills's Review of "Who Was Jesus?"

Best-selling author David Mills reviews this "brilliant volume" that "should be required reading in every American classroom."
david-mills-wwj.html
 
Did Jesus fulfill prophecy? There are many Old Testament "messianic scriptures" that seemed to have been fulfilled in Jesus Christ. What really happened?
jesusprophecy.html

Easter: The Resurrection of Spring
Although it is believed to represent the time of Jesus Christ's resurrection, the festival of Easter existed in pre-Christian times...
easter-resurrection.html

Jesus Christ as the Sun God throughout History
The contention that connecting Jesus to the sun constitutes a "modern" phenomenon is easily demonstrated to be false, through the study of ancient texts, including the Bible and works of the early Church fathers, as well as Christian traditions, rituals, architecture and artifacts.
jesussunexcerpt.html

Jesus, Son of Joseph, and Horus, Son of Seb
Is the earthly father of Jesus, Joseph, a remake of Seb, the earthly father of the Egyptian god Horus?
jesusjosephhorusseb.html

The Real ZEITGEIST Challenge, Part 1
Looking for the REAL "ZEITGEIST Challenge?" Here it is.
zeitgeist-challenge.html


Tim Callahan's declaration that much of ZEITGEIST, Part 1, is "plainly and simply bogus" is false, period. Callahan has evidently not even studied the sources meticulously cited on the ZG website to see from where this material comes.
skeptic-zeitgeist.html
 
Is Jesus the "reason for the season"? Christmas is the winter solstice celebration, not the birthday of the Son of God.
christmas.html
 
The history of Mythicism or the Mythicist Position is fascinating and important to our fundamental understanding of the world's religions and mythologies.
mythicism.html
 
Was Amenhotep II depicted as being born of a "virgin mother?" Or is there more to the hieroglyphs? Could the Christian nativity have been based on the Egyptian divine-birth cycle?
luxor.html
 
Much has been made of the gospel account of the "star in the east" followed by "wise men" from afar, claimed to have heralded the birth of the newborn savior of the world.
star-east-three-kings.html
 
Along with the claim that Horus was born on "December 25th" or the winter solstice of a virgin called Mery comes the contention that he was "crucified between two thieves," as Jesus is depicted to have been in the New Testament.
washoruscrucified.html
 
Nearly all the solar deities had a Virgin for a mother. The birthday of Jesus, like that of Mithra and other solar gods, was about December 25, and his twelve Apostles correspond to the twelve signs of the Zodiac. When Jesus (who was the Sun of Righteousness) was "crucified," the Sun naturally died; it was eclipsed. Jesus rose with the Sun on the day of the Sun.
jesusgodmanmyth.html
 
Were the various important mythical motifs explored in "Christ in Egypt" part of Egyptian religion, and, despite their apparent status as mysteries, were they known to those who created Christianity?
wellknowninegypt.html
 
The term "mythicist" refers to the perspective that there exists no credible scientific evidence for the "historical" Jesus and other biblical figures.
mythicist.html
 
In exploring the various Egyptian influences upon the Christian religion, one name frequently encountered is that of lay Egyptologist Gerald Massey (1828-1907).
who-is-gerald-massey.html

 

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Articles
▪ Apollo the Chrēst?
▪ Apollonius, Jesus and Paul
▪ Astrotheology of the Ancients
▪ Attis: Born of a Virgin on December 25th, Crucified and Resurrected after Three Days
▪ Beddru is Beddou is Buddha
▪ Bone-Box No Proof of Jesus
▪ The Chi-Rho Symbol and Chrestos
▪ Chrestes as Oracle
▪ Chresto in the Suetonius Manuscript Tradition
▪ Chrestos Magical Cup?
▪ Christ Con Errata
▪ Christ Conspiracy Review
▪ Christ Conspiracy Review
▪ The Christmas Hoax
▪ The Christ Myth
▪ Debunking the Christ Myth?
▪ Did George Washington and Thomas Jefferson Believe Jesus was a Myth?
▪ Dionysus: Born of a Virgin, Killed and Resurrected
▪ Early Church Fathers on Mithraism
▪ Is Easter Christian or Pagan?
▪ The Historical Jesus?
▪ Was Horus Born on December 25th of a Virgin?
▪ Jesus the Druid?
▪ Isis the Chrēst
▪ Jesus in India?
▪ Josephus on Jesus
▪ How Old is Christianity?
▪ Is Jesus a Remake of Osiris?
▪ The Jesus Puzzle
▪ Mithra the Pagan Christ
▪ The Naked Truth
▪ Neith the Egyptian Virgin Mother of the World
▪ Is Noah's Ark Real?
▪ Origins of Christianity
▪ Pliny, Tacitus and Suetonius: No Proof of Jesus
▪ The Problem of Religion
▪ Rebuttal to Dr. Chris Forbes concerning 'Zeitgeist, Part 1'
▪ Is the Shroud of Turin Real?
▪ Is Suetonius's Chrestus a Reference to Jesus?
▪ Sun Lore of All Ages
▪ Suns of God Review | Danny McNeal
▪ Suns of God Review | Dr. Robert M. Price
▪ Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity
▪ Was Krishna Born of a Virgin? | Devaki
▪ Was Krishna Crucified?
▪ When Was the First Christmas?
▪ Who was Buddha?
▪ Who was Mary Magdalene?
▪ Who is the Virgin Mary?
▪ ZEITGEIST Sourcebook (PDF)
▪ Les origines du christianisme et la recherche pour Jésus le Christ historique
▪ Los orígenes del cristianismo y la búsqueda del Jesús Cristo histórico
▪ Christ Myth Articles
▪ Religion & Spirituality Articles
▪ Quotes from Luminaries & Lunatics
▪ Politics & Society
▪ Stellar House Publishing Articles
Testimonials

"Murdock's scholarship is relentless! ...the research conducted by D.M. Murdock concerning the myth of Jesus Christ is certainly both valuable and worthy of consideration." —Dr. Kenneth L. Feder, Professor of Archaeology, Central Connecticut State University, Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience In Archaeology

"I find myself in full agreement with Acharya S/D.M. Murdock... I find it undeniable that...many, many of the epic heroes and ancient patriarchs and matriarchs of the Old Testament were personified stars, planets and constellations..." —Dr. Robert M. Price, The Pre-Nicene New Testament

"I can recommend your work whole-heartedly!" —Dr. Robert Eisenman, James the Brother of Jesus and The New Testament Code, RobertEisenman.com

"Acharya S deserves to be recognized as a leading researcher and an expert in the field of comparative mythology, on a par with James Frazer or Robert Graves—indeed, superior to those forerunners in the frankness of her conclusions and the volume of her evidence." —Barbara Walker, The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets and Man Made God

"...I have found Murdock's scholarship, research, knowledge of the original languages, and creative linkages to be breathtaking and highly stimulating." —Rev. Dr. Jon Burnham, Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Houston, TX

"I've known people with triple Ph.D's who haven't come close to the scholarship in Who Was Jesus?" —Pastor David Bruce, M.Div, North Park Seminary, Chicago, HollywoodJesus.com

"Thirty years ago, when in divinity school, I might have had second thoughts about becoming an Episcopal priest if a book like D. M. Murdock's Who Was Jesus? had been available to me." —Bob Semes, Retired university professor of History and Religion, Founder and Executive Director of The Jefferson Center

"Ms. Murdock is one of only a tiny number of scholars with the richly diverse academic background (and the necessary courage) to adequately address the question of whether Jesus Christ truly existed as a walking-talking figure in first-century Palestine." —David Mills, Atheist Universe

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