Consciousness Media interview of Acharya S image
Online video
 "You can
help!"

donate help
Truth Be Known logo with the Egyptian goddess Maat's Feather of Truth
religion mythology archaeology history astrotheology archeoastronomy online since 1995

Come join me! Facebook image Come join Acharya on Twitter Acharya on Google+ Acharya's Youtube channel Acharya on Linked In Acharya on Tumblr
 

Isis the Chrēst

by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S

Is Jesus Christ truly a unique, divine revelation? Or is he one of many "Christs" and "Chrēsts" in antiquity? As "Jesus the Good" was called "Chrēstos," so too was the Egyptian goddess Isis.

The chi-rho or 'chrestomathy' mark was used to designate something 'good' or 'useful,' until it was taken over by Christianity and changed to represent 'christos' or 'anointed.'

In several instances in ancient times, the figure of "Jesus the Christ" is also called "Jesus the Chrēst" or "Jesus the Good," these two epithets, "Christos" and "Chrēstos," closely resembling each other and often confused by early Church fathers and others. As was the case with the title of Χριστός Christos, meaning "anointed," being held by various gods and other figures in the ancient world, so too was the epithet χρηστός Chrestos/Chrestus attached to several individuals, divine and otherwise. This fact that epithets traditionally associated with Jesus in reality were possessed by many others in antiquity is important to understand, as it demonstrates once again that the Christ character is neither unique nor representative of genuine divine revelation.

The Good God/dess

In Egypt for example, we find the common phrase neter nefer or "Good God," an epithet applied to Osiris as well as to the pharaohs, these latter of whom were considered divinities on Earth, incarnations of the god Horus. It is contended that, after the Greek-speaking Ptolemies began ruling Egypt or even before, with the introduction of Greek mysteries, Osiris and other Egyptian gods and goddesses were called chrestos.

In this regard, in Boeckh Corp. Inscr. (2:245, n. 2300) appears an inscription found on the Greek island of Delos that reads ΙΣΙΔΙ ΧΡΗΣΤΗ or "Isis Chreste":

Interestingly, Delos had a Therapeutan community, while Isis evidently was worshipped by the Judeo-Buddhist Therapeuts at Alexandria. (See my book Christ in Egypt, 440, 456.)

Along the same lines, in The Foreigner: A Search for the First-Century Jesus (77), Desmond Stewart says:

Chrestus (or in its Greek original, chrêstos ) means gentle, kindly, good; it is, curiously, the equivalent of the common pharaonic title of Osiris, Un-nefer.

This epithet "Un-Nefer" or "Onnofri," etc., possesses the same basic meaning as chrestos; therefore, any Egyptian texts calling Osiris "Un-Nefer" when translated into Greek may have used the word chrestos.

Osiris the KRST

Christ in EgyptIt is significant that in Egyptian language the word for "tomb," "funeral," "dead body" or "mummy" is pronounced "krst" or "karest," similar to chrest and christ, especially when one considers that the initial hieroglyph for this word (N29) possesses a χ or chi sound. The last glyph in this word is the determinative Mummy determinative, Gardiner's A53 (A53), the standing mummy, which represents Osiris risen. (For more information, see my book Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection, 313-318) 

This suggestion of Osiris as chrestos is given further support by the interesting discussion in a purported letter by Emperor Hadrian in which he claims that the Egyptian hybrid god Serapis ("Ausar-Apis") was worshipped by the "Chrestians." 

In Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus (52), Dr. Arthur Drews presents this Hadrian-Servius letter as stating in part:

Those who worship Serapis are the Chrestians, and those who call themselves priests of Chrestus are devoted to Serapis. There is not a high-priest of the Jews, a Samaritan, or a priest of Chrestus who is not a mathematician, soothsayer, or quack. Even the patriarch, when he goes to Egypt, is compelled by some to worship Serapis, by others to worship Chrestus. 

The Greek word chrestos was popular as an epithet or on epitaphs at various Egyptian funerary sites as at Alexandria and elsewhere. This fact too suggests that the Lord of the Underworld and Afterlife, Osiris, the Good God, like his wife, Isis Chreste, may have been likewise deemed Chrestos.

The Egyptian Houses of Goodness

The popular Egyptian term nfr or nefer, meaning "pleasant," "beautiful," "good," "excellent" and "gracious," comparable to chrestos, is designated by the  hieroglyph of a cross (trachea) with a heart at the bottom (F35). Interestingly, this fascinating symbol, which looks like the sacred heart of Jesus, appears over Egyptian "Houses of Goodness" or "Houses of Chrest," so to speak, that resemble churches.

Further Reading

Sacred Heart of Jesus

Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection
Is Suetonius's Chresto a Reference to Jesus? 
The Chi-Rho Symbol and Chrestos
Chrestos Magical Bowl? 
Chrestes as Oracle and Chrematizo in the New Testament
Apollo, Son of God and the Chrest?
Pliny, Tacitus and Suetonius: No Proof of Jesus
Christos or Chrestos?
Egyptian Houses of Goodness
Does Josephus prove a historical Jesus?
The Jesus Forgery: Josephus Untangled
Franck Goddio Society Chrestos Bowl Report
Earliest Reference Describes Christ as 'Magician'
Catalogue of Chrest
Christian Lindtner's Review of Hermann Detering's Falsche Zeugen: Ausserchristliche Jesuszeugnisse auf dem Prüfstand

Repost This


SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER! 
Enter your name and email address below:
Name:
Email:
Subscribe Unsubscribe
Donate to keep us going!

Articles
▪ Apollo the Chrēst?
▪ Apollonius, Jesus and Paul
▪ Attis: Born of a Virgin on December 25th, Crucified and Resurrected after Three Days
▪ Beddru is Beddou is Buddha
▪ Bone-Box No Proof of Jesus
▪ The Chi-Rho Symbol and Chrestos
▪ Chrestes as Oracle
▪ Chresto in the Suetonius Manuscript Tradition
▪ Chrestos Magical Cup?
▪ Christ Con Errata
▪ Christ Conspiracy Review
▪ Christ Conspiracy Review
▪ The Christmas Hoax
▪ The Christ Myth
▪ Debunking the Christ Myth?
▪ Did George Washington and Thomas Jefferson Believe Jesus was a Myth?
▪ Dionysus: Born of a Virgin, Killed and Resurrected
▪ Early Church Fathers on Mithraism
▪ Is Easter Christian or Pagan?
▪ The Historical Jesus?
▪ Was Horus Born on December 25th of a Virgin?
▪ Jesus the Druid?
▪ Isis the Chrēst
▪ Jesus in India?
▪ Josephus on Jesus
▪ How Old is Christianity?
▪ Is Jesus a Remake of Osiris?
▪ The Jesus Puzzle
▪ Mithra the Pagan Christ
▪ The Naked Truth
▪ Neith the Egyptian Virgin Mother of the World
▪ Is Noah's Ark Real?
▪ Origins of Christianity
▪ Pliny, Tacitus and Suetonius: No Proof of Jesus
▪ The Problem of Religion
▪ Rebuttal to Dr. Chris Forbes concerning 'Zeitgeist, Part 1'
▪ Is the Shroud of Turin Real?
▪ Is Suetonius's Chrestus a Reference to Jesus?
▪ Sun Lore of All Ages
▪ Suns of God Review | Danny McNeal
▪ Suns of God Review | Dr. Robert M. Price
▪ Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity
▪ Was Krishna Born of a Virgin? | Devaki
▪ Was Krishna Crucified?
▪ When Was the First Christmas?
▪ Who was Buddha?
▪ Who was Mary Magdalene?
▪ Who is the Virgin Mary?
▪ ZEITGEIST Sourcebook (PDF)
▪ Les origines du christianisme et la recherche pour Jésus le Christ historique
▪ Los orígenes del cristianismo y la búsqueda del Jesús Cristo histórico
▪ Christ Myth Articles
▪ Religion & Spirituality Articles
▪ Quotes from Luminaries & Lunatics
▪ Politics & Society
▪ Stellar House Publishing Articles
Testimonials

"Murdock's scholarship is relentless! ...the research conducted by D.M. Murdock concerning the myth of Jesus Christ is certainly both valuable and worthy of consideration." —Dr. Kenneth L. Feder, Professor of Archaeology, Central Connecticut State University, Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience In Archaeology

"I find myself in full agreement with Acharya S/D.M. Murdock... I find it undeniable that...many, many of the epic heroes and ancient patriarchs and matriarchs of the Old Testament were personified stars, planets and constellations..." —Dr. Robert M. Price, The Pre-Nicene New Testament

"I can recommend your work whole-heartedly!" —Dr. Robert Eisenman, James the Brother of Jesus and The New Testament Code, RobertEisenman.com

"Acharya S deserves to be recognized as a leading researcher and an expert in the field of comparative mythology, on a par with James Frazer or Robert Graves—indeed, superior to those forerunners in the frankness of her conclusions and the volume of her evidence." —Barbara Walker, The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets and Man Made God

"...I have found Murdock's scholarship, research, knowledge of the original languages, and creative linkages to be breathtaking and highly stimulating." —Rev. Dr. Jon Burnham, Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Houston, TX

"I've known people with triple Ph.D's who haven't come close to the scholarship in Who Was Jesus?" —Pastor David Bruce, M.Div, North Park Seminary, Chicago, HollywoodJesus.com

"Thirty years ago, when in divinity school, I might have had second thoughts about becoming an Episcopal priest if a book like D. M. Murdock's Who Was Jesus? had been available to me." —Bob Semes, Retired university professor of History and Religion, Founder and Executive Director of The Jefferson Center

"Ms. Murdock is one of only a tiny number of scholars with the richly diverse academic background (and the necessary courage) to adequately address the question of whether Jesus Christ truly existed as a walking-talking figure in first-century Palestine." —David Mills, Atheist Universe

Join me


Books



Ebooks


Freethought Gear

Freethought Gear products image

Support this site!